Nicaraguan Consulate in São Paulo
Republic of Nicaragua - General Information
Official Name: Republic of Nicaragua
Form of State: Presidential Republic
Area: 129.494 Km²
National Date: September 15
Largest Cities: Managua, León, Chinandega, Masaya e Granada
Population: 6.0 milion
In the center is the national emblem, wich consists of a green triangle with five volcanoes on such a cap and a rainbow.
National Coat of Arms:
Has the form of an equilateral triangle.
Hail to you Nicaragua, on your grounds
the canon's voice no longer roars
nor does the blood of our brothers
stained the glorious bi-colored flag
Peace shines beautifully on your skies
nothing dims your immortal glory
for working is what earns your laurels and honor
is your triumphal ensign
Anthem named Hail to thee Nicaragua is the shortest and the only American who is not inspired by the "Marseillaise" and do not proclaim war.
The National Bird is the Guardabarranco (Eumomota superciliosa).
The national flower is the Sacuanjoche (Plumeria rubra acutefolia) and its namecomes from an Aztec dialect, as defined by the investigator General Alfonso Valle,broken down as follows: "zacuani" precious yellow pen, "Xochitl" flower.
Nicaragua, the largest country of Central America, with an area of 129,494 km2, is bounded in the north by Honduras, Costa Rica in the south, in the east by the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean on the west. Nicaragua is divided in three main regions: The Pacific Plains, the Centre-North Mountains and the Caribbean Plains, or Mosquitos Coast. Interposed by about 40 volcanoes, with hot climate and fertile lands, characterises the Pacific Plains. The country´s principal cities, Managua, Granada and León are located here. The lakes, rains and fertile lands make agriculture the principal economic activity of this region.
Lake Nicaragua has over 400 islands and is the country´s largest lake, connected to the Caribbean Sea by the San Juan River. The Centre-North region consists of various mountain ranges and valleys. The soil is also quite fertile, favouring agriculture. The country´s highest point, Cerro Mogotón (2103m) is located in this region, close to the border with Honduras. The Mosquitos Coast represents nearly half of the Nicaraguan territory and has the country´s main rivers. Less populated, the region has savannah vegetation and tropical forests.
The country´s climate varies according to the region and altitude. The hot climate of the Pacific Plains alternates between dry and humid seasons. The annual rainfall of the region comes to 1900mm. The Mosquitos Coast also has a hot and humid climate with an annual rainfall of 3300mm. On the other hand, the mountain ranges have a colder climate.
The Political System
Nicaragua is divided in 15 Departments (Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, León, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas) and two autonomous regions (Atlantico Norte and Atlantico Sur).
The Executive: The President and Vice President are elected by popular vote for a five years term. The cabinet consists of the following ministries: Foreign Relations, Government, Defence, Education, Family, Environment and Natural Resources, Agriculture and Forestry, Labour, Development, Industry and Trade, Treasury and Public Credit, Health, Transport and Infrastructure.
President Daniel Ortega Saavedra, Sandinist National Liberation Front (FSLN), took office on January 10, 2012. The next elections are scheduled for November 2016.
The Legislative: The National Assembly (unicameral), with 92 members elected by proportional representation for a mandate of five years. The main parties are the Sandinist National Liberation Front (FSLN) and the Liberal Constitutional Party (PLC).
The Judiciary: A Supreme Court has 16 judges elected by the National Assembly for mandates of five years.
GDP: US$ 9.8 billion 2012
GDP per capita: US$3,325 2012
Inflation: 6.6% 2012
Unemployment: 7% (2012), with considerable informal labour – 31%.
Gross Domestic Product by Sectors:
US$5.04 billion 2012
Products: coffee, shrimps, lobsters, cotton, tobacco, bananas, meat, sugar, gold
Destination: United States, El Salvador and Venezuela
US$6.8 billion (est. 2012)
Products: machines and equipment, raw materials and intermediary goods, capital goods, consumer goods, oil, fuel and lubricants.
Origin: United States, Venezuela, Mexico and China.
Principal trade partners: United States, Venezuela and Central American countries.
The bilateral relationship between Brazil and Nicaragua develop cordially, although modestly. Hurricane Mitch, at the end of 1998, destroyed most of Nicaragua´s economic infrastructure, generating greater Brazilian cooperation, particularly emergency assistance (donations of medicines and medical equipment). The technical-scientific and cultural cooperation of today is an important contribution. Result of the Basic Agreement signed in 1987 it covers the following areas: agriculture and livestock breeding, alternative and renewable energy, industrial and agriculture (seeds) research, sanitation and education.
The Centre of Brazilian Studies (CEB) of Managua offers Portuguese courses to about 180 students annually. CEB is an important tool to disseminate Brazilian culture. Television soap operas as well as popular music and Brazilian football are highly appreciated and contribute greatly to divulging Brazilian culture.
The cancelling of the Nicaraguan debt with Brazil was a measure of great importance in the last few years of the bilateral relationship. In May of 2002 Brazil pardoned 95% of the Nicaraguan debt, accumulated in the 1980´s
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